Afghanistan's rugged terrain and seasonally harsh climate have not deterredforeign invaders who coveted this land or sought to cross it on the road tofurther conquests. The history of Afghanistan is replete with tales of invasion.Yet the rugged landscape combined with the fiercely independent spirit of theAfghan people have seriously impeded and often repulsed would-be conquerors.
Afghanistan resembles an irregularly shaped hanging leaf with the WakhanCorridor and the Pamir Knot as its stem in the northeast. Situated between 2935' and 38 40' north latitude and 60 31' and 75 00' east latitude, itencompasses approximately 652,290 square kilometers, roughly the size of Texas,stretching 1,240 kilometers from east to west and 565 kilometers from north tosouth. Afghanistan is completely landlocked, bordered by Iran to the west (925kilometers), by the Central Asian States of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, andTajikistan to the north and northeast (2,380 kilometers), by China at theeasternmost top of the Wakhan Corridor (96 kilometers), and by Pakistan to theeast and south (2,432 kilometers).
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