Academic and higher technical education opportunities were well-developed by1978. The first college of Medicine opened in Kabul in 1932 and later facultieswere joined to form Kabul University in 1946; women were admitted in 1960; andall faculties were brought to a central campus in 1964. Kabul Universityextended its facilities by opening the Nangarhar Faculty of Medicine inJalalabad in 1963 which formed the nucleus of Ningrahar University in 1964 whichhas been called the Ningrahar Islamic University since 1992. In addition, overthe years increasing numbers of students, male and female, studied abroad.
Support for the university's faculties came from many international sources,including the United States. In 1969 Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin opened thePolytechnic Institute in Kabul where the curriculum included engineering,geology, mineral, oil and gas exploitation, roads and industrial construction,hydroelectric networks and city planning. Later, during the tenure of the PDPAgovernments, Balkh University (1986), Herat University (1988), and KandaharUniversity (1991) were established. In the mid-1990s, institutions were openedin Baghlan, Takhar and Bamiyan. Most higher education institutions were stillfunctioning in 1996, albeit in severely damaged physical facilities, with nextto no textbooks, libraries or laboratories, and hampered by underqualifiedstaff. The Taliban exclude women from universities in areas under their control.
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