Neighboring Governments: Involvements and Interference
Divisions within the resistance were exacerbated by foreign interference. AsAmerican support declined after the Soviet withdrawal, the mujahidin foundthemselves increasingly dependent on assistance from their neighbors, especiallyPakistan, Saudi Arabia and Iran. With this dependence came interference whichdistracted from the effort to defeat the Kabul regime.
Pakistan's interference principally took the form of favoritism between thePeshawar parties. It was especially evident in its clandestine attempt to backthe Hekmatyar-Tanai coup. It was more obvious in the ISI's support of mujahidinattacks on towns in the eastern region after the failure at Jalalabad."packaging," or the combination of training, supply, and mutualtactical planning, had become the ISI's approach to assisting the mujahidin. Itwas especially evident in the siege and final capture of Khost in early 1991.Again, Hekmatyar's forces were favored in the packaging arrangements. Thissituation contrasted sharply with the fall off in supplies to Rabbani's majorcommanders, Massoud in the northeast and Ismail Khan near Herat. Attempts by theISI to introduce the packaging approach to the loose coalition of commandersaround Qandahar were rebuked due to the ISI's insistence on control.
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