Albania country studies

Albania country studies

Acknowledgments
Preface
Table A. Chronology of Important Events
History
The Ancient Illyrians
The Barbarian Invasions and the Middle Ages
The Albanian Lands Under Ottoman Domination, 1385-1876
The Ottoman Conquest of Albania
Albanians Under Ottoman Rule
Local Albanian Leaders in the Early Nineteenth Century
National Awakening and the Birth of Albania, 1876-1918
The Rise of Albanian Nationalism
The Balkan Wars and Creation of Independent Albania
World War I and Its Effects on Albania
Interwar Albania, 1918-41
Albania's Reemergence After World War I
Social and Economic Conditions After World War I
Government and Politics
Italian Penetration
Zog's Kingdom
Italian Occupation
World War Ii and the Rise of Communism, 1941-44
The Communist and Nationalist Resistance
The Communist Takeover of Albania
Communist Albania
Consolidation of Power and Initial Reforms
Albanian-Yugoslav Tensions
Deteriorating Relations with the West
Albania and the Soviet Union
Albania and China
The Cultural and Ideological Revolution
The Break with China and Self-Reliance
The Society and Its Environment
Geography
Topography
Drainage
Climate
Population
Ethnicity
Greeks and Other Minorities
Albanians in Kosovo
Languages and Dialects
Settlement Patterns
Social System
Social Structure Under Communist Rule
Religion
Hoxha's Antireligious Campaign
The Revival of Religion
Education
Education Under Communist Rule
Health and Welfare
Housing
Social Insurance
The Economy
Economic Policy and Performance
The Precommunist Albanian Economy
Imposition of the Stalinist System
Dependence on Yugoslavia, 1945-48
Dependence on the Soviet Union, 1948-60
Dependence on China, 1961-78
Isolation and Autarky
Economic System
Governmental Bodies and Control
Ownership and Private Property
Enterprises and Firms
Finance and Banking
Currency and Monetary Policy
Government Revenues and Expenditures
Savings
Work Force and Standard of Living
Prices and Wages
Domestic Consumption
Standard of Living
Population and Work Force
Women in the Work Force
Trade Unions
Agriculture
The Land
Land Distribution and Agricultural Organization
Structure and Marketing of Agricultural Output
Livestock and Pasturelands
Mechanization
Fertilizers, Pesticides, and Seeds
Forests
Fisheries
Industry
Energy and Natural Resources
Manufacturing
Engineering
Light Industry
Food Processing
Construction
Environmental Problems
Transportation and Telecommunications
Road Transportation
Railroads
Air Transportation
Water Transportation
Telecommunications
Retail Trade, Services, and Tourism
Retail Trade and Services
Black Market
Tourism
Foreign Economic Relations
Foreign Trade Organization
Foreign Trade Balance and Balance of Payments
Trade Partners
Commodity Pattern of Trade
Activities of Foreign Companies in Albania
Foreign Assistance
Prospects for Reform
Government and Politics
Origins of the Political System
Albania After World War Ii
The Hoxha Regime
Alia Takes Over
Albania's Communist Party
The Government Apparatus
People's Assembly
Council of Ministers and People's Councils
Courts
Mass Organizations
Democratic Front
Union of Albanian Working Youth
Union of Albanian Women
United Trade Unions of Albania
Mass Media
Reform Politics
Initial Stages
Human Rights
Further Moves Toward Democracy
Multiparty System
The Coalition Government of 1991
Foreign Policy
Shifting Alliances
Changes in the 1980S
Alia's Pragmatism
Albania Seeks New Allies
National Security
Development of the Armed Forces
From Independence to World War Ii
World War Ii
Postwar Development
Evolution of National Security Policy
Defense Organization
Political Control
People's Army
Ground Forces
Air and Air Defense Forces
Naval Forces
Military Manpower
Conscript Training
Paramilitary Training
Military Schools
Military Budget and the Economy
Internal Security
Domestic Repression Under Hoxha and Alia
Penal Code
Penal System
Security Forces
Directorate of State Security
Frontier Guards
People's Police
Auxiliary Police

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