Appendix. Tables

Appendix. Tables

Source: Based on information from Marc Raeff, "History of Russia/Unionof Soviet Socialist Republics," Academic American Encyclopedia,16, Danbury, Connecticut, 1986, 358.

Table 3. Populated Places in European Russia Irradiated by Chernobyl' andOther Industrial Accidents

Jurisdiction Populated Places by Degree of Irradiation Total
  0-1 1-5 5-15  
  Belgorod Oblast   318   232   0   550
Bryansk Oblast 1,183 479 264 1,926
Kaluga Oblast 262 281 69 612
Kursk Oblast 915 201 0 1,116
Leningrad Oblast 68 87 0 155
Lipetsk Oblast 123 92 0 215
Moscow Oblast 9 0 0 9
Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast 137 0 0 137
Orel Oblast 683 876 15 1,574
Penza Oblast 57 23 0 80
Republic of Bashkortostan 16 0 0 16
Republic of Chuvashia 34 0 0 34
Republic of Mari El 25 0 0 25
Republic of Mordovia 290 48 0 338
Rostov Oblast 2 0 0 2
Ryazan' Oblast 246 293 0 539
Smolensk Oblast 89 0 0 89
Tambov Oblast 116 7 0 123
Tula Oblast 1,072 1,150 144 2,366
Ul'yanovsk Oblast 101 8 0 109
Volgograd Oblast 2 3 0 5
Voronezh Oblast 758 214 0 972
TOTAL 6,506 3,994 492 10,992

Source: Based on information from Russia, Committee on Land Resources andUtilization, Zemlya Rossii 1995: Problemy, tsifry, kommentarii, Moscow,1996, 35-36.

Table 4. Area, Population, and Capitals of the Soviet Republics, 1989 Census

Republic Area of Republic (in square kilometers) Population of Republic1 Capital Population of Capital
  Russia   17,075,400   145,311,000   Moscow   8,815,000
Kazakstan 2,717,300 16,244,000 Alma-Ata 1,108,000
Ukraine 603,700 51,201,000 Kiev 2,544,000
Turkmenistan 488,100 3,361,000 Ashkhabad 382,000
Uzbekistan 447,400 19,026,000 Tashkent 2,124,000
Belorussia 207,600 10,078,000 Minsk 1,543,000
Kyrgyzstan 198,500 4,143,000 Frunze 632,000
Tajikistan 143,100 4,807,000 Dushanbe 582,000
Azerbaijan 86,600 6,811,000 Baku 1,115,000
Georgia 69,700 5,266,000 Tbilisi 1,194,000
Lithuania 65,200 3,641,000 Vilnius 566,000
Latvia 64,500 2,647,000 Riga 900,000
Estonia 45,100 1,556,000 Tallin 478,000
Moldavia 33,700 4,185,000 Kishinev 663,000
Armenia 29,800 3,412,000 Yerevan 1,168,000
TOTAL 22,403,000 286,717,000   24,008,000

Source: Based on information from Izvestiya [Moscow], April 29,1989, 1-2.

Table 5. Largest Nature Reserves and National Parks, 1992

Name and Location Year Established Area Number of Protected Species
Animals Birds Plants
  Putoran Reserve, Krasnoyarsk Territory     1988     1,887     38     142     650
Ust'-Lena Reserve, Republic of Sakha   1986   1,433   32   99   523
Taymyr Reserve, Krasnoyarsk Territory   1979   1,349   16   85   714
Tunka Park, Republic of Buryatia   1991   1,184   47   200   100
Kronotskiy Reserve, Kamchatka Oblast   1967   1,142   42   217   810
Central Siberian Reserve, Krasnoyarsk Territory   1931   972   45   241   545
Magadan Reserve, Magaden Oblast   1982   884   46   135   300
Altay Reserve, Republic of Gorno-Altay   1932   881   67   320   1,454
Dzhugdzhur Reserve, Khabarovsk Territory   1990   860   29   69   480
Olekminsk Reserve, Republic of Sakha   1984   847   40   180   450
Wrangel Island Reserve, Magadan Oblast   1976   796   15   151   438
Pechero-Il'ich Reserve, Republic of Komi   1930   722   46   215   702
Baikal-Lena Reserve, Irkutsk Oblast   1986   660   48   171   679
Verkhnetazov Reserve, Tyumen' Oblast   1986   631   25   55   291
Yugan Reserve, Tyumen' Oblast   1982   623   24   180   739

Source: Based on information from Novaya Rossiya `94:Informatsionno-statisticheskiy al'manakh, Moscow, 1994, 95-96.

Table 6. Per Capita Annual Consumption of Selected Foods, 1991-94 (inkilograms unless otherwise specified)

Food 1991 1992 1993 1994
  Meat and meat products   63   55   54   53
Milk and milk products 347 281 294 278
Eggs (units) 288 263 250 234
Fish and fish products 16 12 12 10
Sugar and confections 38 30 31 31
Vegetables 86 77 71 65
Fruits 35 32 29 n.a.
Potatoes 112 118 127 122

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation andDevelopment, OECD Economic Surveys: The Russian Federation 1995, Paris,1995, 124.

Table 7. Population by Age and Sex, 1992

Age-Group Males Females Total
  0-1   861,576   818,432   1,680,008
1-4 4,351,791 4,159,567 8,511,358
5-9 6,168,816 5,957,872 12,126,688
10-14 5,578,416 5,418,283 10,996,699
15-19 5,274,609 5,142,603 10,417,212
20-24 4,960,535 4,648,853 9,609,388
25-29 5,274,783 5,146,580 10,421,363
30-34 6,498,819 6,414,389 12,913,208
35-39 6,172,658 6,217,575 12,390,233
40-44 5,403,038 5,563,779 10,966,817
45-49 2,839,814 3,041,791 5,881,605
50-54 4,518,016 5,270,041 9,788,057
55-59 3,576,791 4,410,415 7,987,206
60-64 3,580,852 4,957,475 8,538,327
65-69 2,194,867 4,362,140 6,557,007
70-74 966,641 2,476,577 3,443,218
75-79 727,427 2,254,410 2,981,837
80-84 432,457 1,602,017 2,034,474
85 and over 180,568 884,901 1,065,469
TOTAL 69,562,474 78,747,700 148,310,174

Source: Based on information from United Nations, Department for Economic andSocial Information and Policy Analysis, Demographic Yearbook, 1993, NewYork, 1995, 214-15.

Table 8. Major Ethnic Groups, Selected Years, 1959-89 (in thousands ofpeople)

Ethnic Group 1959 1970 1979 1989
  Russians   97,863   107,748   113,522   119,866
Tatars 4,075 4,758 5,011 5,522
Ukrainians 3,359 3,346 3,658 4,368
Chuvash 1,436 1,637 1,690 1,774
Dagestanis 797 1,152 1,402 1,749
Bashkirs 954 1,181 1,291 1,345
Belorussians 844 964 1,052 1,206
Mordovians 1,211 1,177 1,111 1,074
Chechens 261 572 712 899
Germans 820 762 791 842
Udmurts 616 678 686 715
Mari 498 581 600 644
Kazaks 383 478 518 636
Jews 875 808 701 537
Armenians 256 299 365 532
Buryats 252 313 350 417
Ossetians 248 313 352 402
Kabardins 201 277 319 386
Yakuts 233 295 327 380
Komi 283 315 320 336
Azerbaijanis 71 96 152 336
Ingush 56 137 166 215
Tuvinians 100 139 165 206
Moldavians 62 88 102 173
Kalmyks 101 131 140 166
Roma 72 98 121 153
Karachay 71 107 126 150
Georgians 58 69 89 131
Karelians 164 141 133 125
Adyghs 79 98 107 123
Khakass 56 65 69 79
Balkars 35 53 59 69
Altays 45 55 59 69
Cherkess 29 38 45 51

Source: Based on information from Novaya Rossiya `94:Informatsionno-statisticheskiy al'manakh, Moscow, 1994, 110.

Table 9. Ethnic Composition of Autonomous Republics, 1989 (in percentages)

Republic Russians Titular Nationality   Other Major Group  
  Adygea   68   Adyghs   22   Ukrainians   3
Bashkortostan 39 Bashkirs 22 Tatars 28
Buryatia 70 Buryats 24 --  
Chechnya and Ingushetia 23 Chechens 53 --  
    Ingush 13 --  
Chuvashia 27 Chuvash 68 Tatars 3
Dagestan 9 Dagestanis 80 Azerbaijanis 4
Gorno-Altay (Altay) 60 Altays 31 --  
Kabardino-Balkaria 32 Kabardins 48 --  
    Balkars 9 --  
Kalmykia 38 Kalmyks 45 Dagestanis 6
Karachayevo-Cherkessia 42 Karachay 31 --  
    Cherkess 10 --  
Karelia 74 Karelians 10 Belorussians 7
Khakassia 80 Khakass 11 --  
Komi 58 Komi 23 --  
Mari El 48 Mari 45 Tatars 6
Mordovia 61 Mordovians 33 Tatars 5
North Ossetia (Alania) 30 Ossetians 53 Ingush 5
Sakha (Yakutia) 50 Yakuts 33 Ukrainians 7
Tatarstan 43 Tatars 49 Chuvash 4
Tyva (Tuva) 32 Tuvinians 64 --  
Udmurtia 59 Udmurts 31 Tatars 7

Table 10. Ethnically Designated Jurisdictions, 1996

Jurisdiction Area Capital Population
  Republics      
Adygea 7,600 Maykop 450,400
Bashkortostan 143,600 Ufa 4,000,000
Buryatia 351,300 Ulan-Ude 1,050,000
Chechnya (Chechnya- Ichkeria) 19,300 Groznyy n.a.
Chuvashia 18,000 Cheboksary 1,361,000
Dagestan 50,300 Makhachkala 2,067,000
Gorno-Altay 92,600 Gorno-Altaysk 200,000
Ingushetia 19,300 Nazran 254,100
Kabardino-Balkaria 12,500 Nalchik 800,000
Kalmykia 75,900 Elista 350,000
Karachayevo-Cherkessia 14,100 Cherkessk 422,000
Karelia 172,400 Petrozavodsk 800,000
Khakassia 61,900 Abakan 600,000
Komi 415,900 Syktyvkar 1,227,900
Mari El 23,300 Yoshkar Ola 754,000
Mordovia 26,200 Saransk 964,000
North Ossetia 8,000 Vladikavkaz 660,000
Sakha 3,100,000 Yakutsk 1,077,000
Tatarstan 68,000 Kazan' 3,800,000
Tyva 170,500 Kyzyl 314,000
Udmurtia 42,100 Izhevsk 1,500,000
Autonomous oblast      
Birobidzhan (Yevreyskaya autonomnaya oblast')   36,000   Birobidzhan   218,000
Autonomous regions (okruga )      
Aga Buryat 19,000 Aga 77,000
Chukchi 737,700 Anadyr 156,000
Evenk 767,600 Tura 25,000
Khanty-Mansi 523,100 Khanty-Mansiysk 1,301,000
Koryak 301,500 Palana 39,000
Nenets 176,700 Naryan-Mar 55,000
Permyak 32,900 Kudymkar 160,000
Taymyr (Dolgan-Nenets) 862,100 Dudinka 55,000
Ust'-Orda Buryat 22,400 Ust'-Ordynskiy 137,000
Yamalo-Nenets 750,300 Salekhard 495,000

Source: Based on information from Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth ofIndependent States 1997, London, 1996, 666-76, 691-94.

Table 11. Indicators of Living Standards, 1991-94

Indicator 1991 1992 1993 1994
  Life expectancy, males (in years)   63.5   62.0   58.9   57.3
Life expectancy, females (in years) 74.3 73.8 71.9 71.1
Daily caloric intake 2,527 2,438 2,552 2,427
Percentage of consumer expenditure on food   38.4   47.1   46.3   46.8
Automobiles per 1,000 persons 63.5 68.5 75.7 84.4
Telephones per 1,000 persons 164.0 167.0 172.0 176.0

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation andDevelopment, OECD Economic Surveys: The Russian Federation 1995, Paris,1995, 123.

Table 12. Students in Primary and Secondary Schools, Selected Years, 1986-93(in millions of students)

  1986 1991 1992 1993
  Grades 1 to 4        
Urban 4.6 5.3 5.3 5.3
Rural 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.5
Total grades 1 to 4 6.6 7.6 7.7 7.8
Grades 5 to 9        
Urban 7.0 7.5 7.5 7.5
Rural 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9
Total grades 5 to 9 9.8 10.3 10.3 10.4
Grades 10 to 11 (or 12)        
Urban 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3
Rural 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6
Total grades 10 to 11 (or 12) 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.9
Schools for the mentally or physically handicapped   0.3   0.4   0.4   0.4
TOTAL 18.6 20.3 20.4 20.5

Source: Based on information from Novaya Rossiya `94:Informatsionno-statisticheskiy al'manakh, Moscow, 1994, 557.

Table 13. Education Statistics for the Autonomous Republics, 1994

Republic Number of General Schools Number of General School Students Vocational Schools Higher Schools
  Adygea   169   63,500   10   1
Bashkortostan 3,264 606,300 157 9
Buryatia 602 190,600 44 4
Chechnya and Ingushetia 554 250,700 22 3
Chuvashia 715 210,100 35 3
Dagestan 1,589 395,000 29 5
Gorno-Altay 135 36,700 4 1
Kabardino-Balkaria 249 131,300 19 3
Kalmykia 250 56,300 12 1
Karachayevo-Cherkessia 186 71,600 8 2
Karelia 336 116,400 21 3
Khakassia 281 93,900 12 1
Komi 591 196,200 12 1
Mari El 435 120,500 34 3
Mordovia 823 132,800 42 2
North Ossetia 210 105,900 17 4
Sakha 711 197,900 33 2
Tatarstan 2,422 525,100 118 15
Tyva 163 61,200 11 1
Udmurtia 882 252,700 45 5

Source: Based on information from Russian Business Agency et al., Russia1994-95: Business, Social, Economic Analytic Profile, 2 and 3, Moscow,1994.

Table 14. Incidence of Selected Diseases, 1990-94 (rate per 1,000 persons)

Disease 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
  Infectious diseases   34.9   33.4   34.9   38.6   44.2
Cancer 5.5 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.5
Endocrinological diseases 3.6 4.0 4.2 4.5 5.2
Blood diseases 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.4
Diseases of the nervous system 45.8 47.6 50.6 54.3 56.5
Circulatory diseases 11.2 11.0 11.5 11.8 12.9
Respiratory diseases 336.2 351.9 289.7 309.2 283.2
Diseases of the digestive organs 27.2 28.6 31.2 32.3 33.2
Diseases of the urinary tract 19.6 20.1 22.3 24.1 26.9
Skin diseases 35.0 35.0 35.7 39.9 45.6
Bone and muscle diseases 24.8 25.5 25.6 25.9 26.9

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation andDevelopment, OECD Economic Surveys: The Russian Federation 1995, Paris,1995, 129.

Table 15. Land Utilization, 1993 and 1994 (in millions of hectares)

  1993 1994
  Agricultural (enterprise and individual ownership)   656.6   667.7
Under municipal or village jurisdiction 38.0 38.6
Designated for industry, transportation, or other nonagricultural purpose   17.8   17.6
Protected lands 26.7 27.3
Owned by timber companies 843.3 838.6
Water resources 19.0 19.4
Lands held in reserve 108.3 100.6
TOTAL 1,709.7 1,709.8

Source: Based on information from Russia, Committee on Land Resources andUtilization, Zemlya Rossii: Problemy, tsifry, kommentarii, 1995,Moscow, 1996, 5.

Table 16. Revenue Sources of Subnational Jurisdictions, 1992, 1993, and 1994(in millions of United States dollars)

Source 1992 1993 1994
  Transfers from national and other government levels     1,419     4,686     7,345
Percentage of total transfers (86.0) (99.0) (98.0)
Profit taxes 4,150 12,110 10,560
Percentage of total profit taxes (58.5) (67.4) (64.9)
Value-added taxes (VAT) 2,290 4,309 5,023
Percentage of total VAT (24.9) (35.7) (35.0)
Excise taxes 500 941 990
Percentage of total excise taxes (52.5) (49.4) (40.0)
Sales taxes 21 n.a. n.a.
Percentage of total sales taxes (100.0) (n.a.) (n.a.)
Personal income taxes 1,943 4,700 5,799
Percentage of total personal income taxes (100.0) (100.0) (99.3)
Property taxes 247 585 1,611
Percentage of total property taxes (100.0) (100.0) (100.0)
Foreign economic activity 36 97 58
Percentage of total foreign economic activity   (2.1)   (4.5)   (0.8)
Natural resource use payments 496 639 681
Percentage of total natural resource use payments   (100.0)   (70.6)   (84.3)
Land taxes 243 293 517
Percentage of total land taxes (76.1) (86.8) (93.3)
Government duties n.a. 109 60
Percentage of total government duties (n.a.) (71.5) (61.7)
Privatization revenues 196 271 n.a.
Percentage of total privatization revenues (69.7) (79.2) (84.5)
Other tax and nontax revenue 392 187 n.a.
Percentage of total other revenue (n.a.) (n.a.) (n.a.)
TOTAL 11,887 30,722 36,619

Source: Based on information from World Bank, Russian Federation: TowardMedium-Term Viability, Washington, 1996, 44.

Table 17. Labor Force Employment Indicators, 1995 and 1996 (in percentage ofworkforce unless otherwise indicated)

Date Unemployment Underemployment Vacancies
    Short-Time On administrative leave (in thousands)
  1995        
January 7.3 2.8 1.6 311
February 7.4 2.9 1.5 316
March 7.5 3.1 1.7 329
April 7.7 2.8 1.4 368
May 7.7 2.6 1.6 405
June 7.7 2.7 1.3 445
July 7.8 2.5 1.3 454
August 7.8 2.5 1.3 460
September 7.9 2.6 1.3 446
October 8.1 2.5 1.3 404
November 8.1 2.7 1.1 352
December 8.2 n.a. n.a. 309
1996        
January 8.3 n.a. n.a. 294
February 8.4 n.a. n.a. 287
March 8.5 n.a. n.a. 286

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, CountryReport: Russia, 2d Quarter 1996, London, 1996, 27.

Table 18. Production Trends in Selected Branches of Heavy Industry, 1992-96(January 1990=100)

Date All Industry Ferrous Metallurgy Chemical and Petrochemical Machine Building and Metalworking
  1992        
January 81 73 80 81
July 70 65 69 75
1993        
January 70 66 67 79
July 62 58 58 66
1994        
January 51 47 40 37
July 50 52 41 37
1995        
January 50 54 49 37
July 50 55 48 34
1996        
January 46 53 44 31
April 45 54 43 32

Source: Based on information from Foreign Broadcast Information Service, DailyReport: Central Eurasia Economic Review, September 3, 1996, 50.

Table 19. Modes of Public Transportation, Selected Years, 1985-92 (inmillions of passengers)

Mode 1985 1990 1991 1992
  International        
Bus 0.2 0.1 0.3 1.5
Air 3.4 4.4 3.6 3.5
Boat n.a. n.a. 0.1 0.2
Intercity        
Bus 702 705 790 520
Railroad 236 261 274 245
Air 69.9 86.4 82.4 59.1
Inland waterway 20.8 20.6 17.1 7.9
Suburban        
Bus 5,498 5,052 5,153 4,531
Railroad 2,799 2,882 2,421 2,127
Inland waterway 30.5 26.5 36.8 21.2
Municipal        
Bus 19,818 22,869 21,359 19,739
Taxi 680 557 526 266
Trolley 5,314 6,020 8,005 8,619
Tramway 5,997 6,000 7,619 8,071
Subway 3,319 3,659 3,229 3,567

Source: Based on information from Novaya Rossiya `94:Informatsionno-statisticheskiy al'manakh, Moscow, 1994, 481.

Table 20. Modes of Transportation of Selected Products, Selected Years,1985-92 (in millions of tons)

Product and Mode 1985 1990 1991 1992
Coal        
Railroad 371.6 387.4 341.0 321.4
Inland waterway 16.8 14.6 12.7 10.8
Truck 22.0 23.3 n.a. n.a.
Sea 9.8 16.2 11.7 10.4
Coke        
Railroad 16.0 12.2 10.1 10.9
Truck 0.1 0.1 0 0
Petroleum products        
Railroad 265.9 246.7 234.9 212.0
Inland waterway 38.8 33.0 31.0 20.5
Truck 27.4 28.3 n.a. n.a
Sea 51.3 53.4 33.9 38.3
Iron and manganese ore        
Railroad 110.3 113.0 96.4 89.8
Inland waterway 3.1 2.3 1.4 1.1
Truck 1.4 4.5 n.a. n.a.
Sea 3.7 4.1 2.4 2.8
Ferrous metals        
Railroad 158.0 142.1 118.6 94.5
Inland waterway 3.4 2.5 2.5 2.1
Truck n.a. 30.8 n.a. n.a.
Sea 0 3.0 2.2 3.1
Chemical and mineral fertilizers        
Railroad 79.6 76.4 69.1 51.7
Inland waterway 4.4 5.0 4.2 3.6
Truck 5.5 3.7 n.a. n.a.
Sea 4.3 2.8 1.3 1.3
Timber        
Railroad 137.5 131.7 116.3 97.2
Inland waterway 67.5 49.7 37.5 27.5
Truck 19.7 15.0 n.a. n.a.
Sea 13.2 11.3 7.1 4.7
Grains        
Railroad 79.3 81.5 69.9 63.2
Inland waterway 5.6 5.9 5.3 6.3
Trucks 59.6 60.5 n.a. n.a.

Source: Based on information from Novaya Rossiya `94:Informatsionno-statisticheskiy al'manakh, Moscow, 1994, 479.

Table 21. Major Import Partners, 1992, 1993, and 1994 (in millions of UnitedStates dollars)

Country 1992 1993 1994
  Germany   6,725   5,142   5,597
Ukraine n.a. n.a. 4,473
Belarus n.a. n.a. 2,088
United States 2,885 2,304 2,053
Kazakstan n.a. n.a. 2,016
Finland 1,223 724 1,618
Netherlands 368 431 1,603
Italy 3,052 1,106 1,510
Japan 1,680 1,367 1,004
Poland 1,230 529 1,001

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, CountryReport: Russia, 2d Quarter 1996, London, 1996, 35.

Table 22. Major Export Partners, 1992, 1993, and 1994 (in millions of UnitedStates dollars)

Country 1992 1993 1994
  Ukraine   n.a.   n.a.   6,602
Germany 5,873 5,074 5,296
Switzerland 865 1,726 3,748
United States 694 1,998 3,694
Britain 2,287 3,353 3,640
Belarus n.a. n.a. 3,112
China 2,737 3,068 2,833
Italy 2,951 2,629 2,729
Netherlands 2,277 979 2,389
Kazakstan n.a. n.a. 2,288
Japan 1,569 2,005 2,165
Finland 1,564 1,364 2,028

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, CountryReport: Russia, 2d Quarter 1996, London, 1996, 35.

Table 23. Trade with the United States by Selected Products, 1995 and 1996(in thousands of United States dollars)

Product 1995 1996
  Exports    
Unwrought aluminum 782,865 588,247
Precious metals and related items 425,348 533,856
Milled steel products 462,252 461,297
Base metals and chemicals 411,749 397,519
Uranium and plutonium 277,010 228,484
Fertilizers 208,080 169,609
Frozen fish 58,869 90,755
Petroleum products 52,129 81,686
Crude petroleum 68,055 79,698
Shellfish 73,015 77,166
Ferroalloys 132,250 74,168
Inorganic chemicals 70,282 62,897
Other 1,097,975 682,437
Total exports 4,019,879 3,527,819
Imports    
Poultry 606,622 912,705
Cigarettes 69,874 360,792
Construction and mining equipment 191,755 174,395
Miscellaneous animals and meats 103,902 140,429
Vehicles and vehicle chassis 88,452 95,100
Commercial and pleasure vessels 9,326 93,323
Automatic data processing machines 113,947 92,847
Medical goods 59,488 65,392
Telephone and telegraph equipment 53,538 59,044
Scientific and industrial instruments 37,537 50,579
Cereals 63,289 46,211
Edible preparations 33,471 44,456
Other 1,322,536 1,125,329
Total imports 2,753,737 3,260,602

Source: Based on official statistics of the United States Department ofCommerce.

Table 24. Presidential Election Second-Round Results by Autonomous Republic,1996

Republic Boris Yeltsin Gennadiy Zyuganov Against Both Candidates Absentee Voided
  Adygea   76,146   133,665   7,575   12,595   118,457
Bashkortostan 1,170,774 990,148 83,484 81,180 535,815
Buryatia 192,933 210,791 16,036 26,454 26,448
Chechnya 275,455 80,877 15,184 33,541 122,438
Chuvashia 205,959 405,129 21,614 27,596 313,864
Dagestan 471,231 401,069 7,423 26,446 249,200
Gorno-Altay 40,026 48,057 3,527 5,805 35,166
Ingushetia 75,768 14,738 3,136 1,973 19,681
Kabardino-Balkaria   259,313   135,287   7,952   16,739   95,083
Kalmykia 103,515 39,354 2,919 14,642 53,731
Karachayevo-Cherkessia   109,747   101,379   5,286   12,510   73,749
Karelia 251,205 100,104 25,025 17,669 96,990
Khakassia 116,729 116,644 11,842 11,030 96,086
Komi 308,250 134,224 31,577 15,955 301,146
Mari El 154,301 199,872 19,628 26,479 171,064
Mordovia 238,441 249,451 16,328 29,106 167,499
North Ossetia 133,748 164,308 7,317 11,630 98,451
Sakha 274,570 126,888 17,293 30,581 62,849
Tatarstan 1,253,121 658,782 74,178 73,109 569,118
Tyva 73,113 37,227 2,423 11,474 33,625
Udmurtia 392,551 302,649 40,302 29,756 279,947
RUSSIA 40,208,384 30,113,306 3,604,550 3,615,336 31,013,641

Source: Based on information from Rossiyskaya gazeta [Moscow], July16, 1996, translated in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report:Central Eurasia, July 31, 1996, 1-3.

Table 25. Funding of Government Functions by Jurisdiction, 1994

Function Federal Republic, Oblast, or Territory Rayon
  Defense   100 percent, except military housing   --   Military housing
Internal security 100 percent -- --
Foreign economic relations   100 percent   --   --
Education All expenses of universities and research institutes All technical and vocational schools Wages and maintenance of primary and secondary schools
Health Medical research institutes Tertiary, veterans', and specialized hospitals Secondary hospitals
Public transportation   --   Interjurisdictional highways, air, and railroad facilities (former federal)   Some facilities such as subways
Libraries Special libraries such as Lenin Library Special services Most services
Housing A portion of construction A portion of construction A portion of construction; maintenance
Price subsidies A portion of food and medicine -- Fuels, mass trans-portation, basic foods, and medicines
Welfare payments A portion A portion Program management
Environment National issues Regional functions such as forest preservation --

Source: Based on information from World Bank, Russian Federation: TowardMedium-Term Viability, Washington, 1996, 40-41.

Table 26. Political Parties and Groups Receiving Highest Vote Count in StateDuma Elections, 1995

Full Name of Party or Group National Vote Count
  Communist Party of the Russian Federation (KPRF)   15,432,963
Liberal-Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) 7,737,431
Our Home Is Russia All-Russian Political Movement (NDR) 7,009,291
Yabloko Public Association 4,767,384
Women of Russia Political Movement 3,188,813
Communist Workers of Russia for the Soviet Union 3,137,406
Congress of Russian Communities Public Political Movement (KRO)   2,980,137
Party of Workers' Self-Government 2,756,954
Russia's Democratic Choice-United Democrats (DVR-OD) 2,674,084
Agrarian Party of Russia 2,613,127
Derzhava (State Power) Social-Patriotic Movement 1,781,233
Forward, Russia! Public Political Movement 1,343,428
Power to the People! 1,112,873
Republican Party of the Russian Federation (RPRF-Pamfilova- Gurov-Vladimir Lysenko)   1,106,812
Trade Unions and Industrialists of Russia-Union of Labor 1,076,072
Votes against all federal tickets 1,918,151

Source: Based on information from Rossiyskaya gazeta [Moscow],January 24, 1996, translated in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, DailyReport: Central Eurasia: Russia, Results of December 1995 State Duma Elections,April 24, 1996, 20-21.

Table 27. Major Periodicals, 1995-96

Newspaper Type Date Established Circulation
  Argumenty i fakty   Weekly, indepe

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