Appendix. Tables

Appendix. Tables

Turkey Table of Contents

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coefficients and Factors

When you know Multiply by To find
     
Millimeters 0.04 inches
Centimeters 0.39 inches
Meters 3.3 feet
Kilometers 0.62 miles
Hectares 2.47 acres
Square kilometers 0.39 square miles
Cubic meters 35.3 cubic feet
Liters 0.26 gallons
Kilograms 2.2 pounds
Metric tons 0.98 long tons
  1.1 short tons
  2,204.0 pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) 1.8 and add 32 degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. The House of Osman: Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, 1281-1922

Name Lineage Reigned
Osman I Son of the gazi Ertugrul 1281-1324
Orhan Son of Osman 1324-60
Murad I Son of Orhan 1360-89
Bayezid I2 Son of Murad I 1389-1402
Süleyman Son of Bayezid I 1402-11
Musa2 Son of Bayezid I 1411-13
Mehmet I2 Son of Bayezid I 1413-21
Murad II Son of Mehmet I 1421-44, 1446-51
Mehmet II Son of Murad II 1444-46, 1451-81
Bayezid II Son of Mehmet II 1481-1512
Selim I Son of Bayezid II 1512-20
Süleyman I Son of Selim I 1520-66
Selim II Son of Süleyman I 1566-74
Murad III Son of Selim II 1574-95
Mehmet III Son of Murad III 1595-1603
Ahmet I Son of Mehmet III 1603-17
Mustafa I Son of Ahmet I 1617-18
Osman II Son of Ahmet I 1618-22
Mustafa I Son of Ahmet I 1622-23
Murad IV Nephew of Mustafa I 1623-40
Ibrahim Brother of Murad IV 1640-48
Mehmet IV Son of Ibrahim 1648-87
Süleyman II Son of Ibrahim 1687-91
Ahmet II Son of Ibrahim 1691-95
Mustafa II Son of Mehmet IV 1695-1703
Ahmet III Son of Mehmet IV 1703-30
Mahmud I Son of Mustafa II 1730-54
Osman III Son of Mustafa II 1754-57
Mustafa III Son of Ahmet III 1757-74
Abdül Hamid I Brother of Mustafa III 1774-89
Selim III Nephew of Abdül Hamid I 1789-1807
Mustafa IV Cousin of Selim III 1807-08
Mahmud II Brother of Mustafa IV 1808-39
Abdülmecid I Son of Mahmud II 1839-61
Abdülaziz Son of Mahmud II 1861-76
Murad V Son of Abdülmecid I 1876
Abdül Hamid II Son of Abdülmecid I 1876-1909
Mehmet V Son of Abdülmecid I 1909-18
Mehmet VI Son of Abdülmecid I 1918-22

Table 3. Presidents and Prime Ministers, 1920-95

President Prime Minister Period in Office
  Atatürk May 1920-January 1921
  Fevzi Çakmak1 January 1921-July 1922
  Rauf Orbay1 July 1922-August 1923
  Fethi Okyar1 August-October 1923
Atatürk (1923-38) Ismet Inönü (CHP) November 1923-November 1924
  Fethi Okyar (Progressive Republican Party) November 1924-March 1925
  Ismet Inönü (CHP) March 1925-October 1937
Ismet Inönü (1938-50) Celal Bayar (CHP) October 1937-January 1939
  Refik Saydam (CHP) January 1939-July 1942
  Sükrü Saraçoglu (CHP) July 1942-August 1946
  Recep Peker (CHP) August 1946-September 1947
  Hasan Saka (CHP) September 1947-January 1949
  Semsettin Günaltay (CHP) January 1949-May 1950
Celal Bayar (1950-60) Adnan Menderes (DP) May 1950-May 1960
Cemal Gürsel (1960-66) Cemal Gürsel May 1960-November 1961
  Ismet Inönü (CHP) November 1961-February 1965
  Suat Hayri Ürgüplü (Independent) February-October 1965
  Süleyman Demirel (AP) October 1965-March 1971
Cevdet Sunay (1966-73) Nihat Erim (Independent) March 1971-April 1972
  Ferit Melen (NRP) April 1972
  Suat Hayri Ürgüplü (Independent) April-May 1972
  Ferit Melen (NRP) May 1972-April 1973
  Naim Talu (Independent) April 1973-January 1974
Fahri Korutürk (1973-80) Bülent Ecevit (CHP) January-November 1974
  Sadi Irmak (Independent) November 1974-March 1975
  Süleyman Demirel (AP) March 1975-January 1978
  Bülent Ecevit (CHP) January 1978-October 1979
  Süleyman Demirel (AP) October 1979-September 1980
Kenan Evren (1980-89) Bülent Ulusu (appointed) September 1980-December 1983
  Turgut Özal (ANAP) December 1983-October 1989
  Ali Bozer 6 (ANAP) October-November 1989
Turgut Özal (1989-93) Yildirim Akbulut (ANAP) November 1989-June 1991
  Mesut Yilmaz (ANAP) June-November 1991
  Süleyman Demirel (DYP) November 1991-May 1993
  Erdal Inönü May-June 1993
Süleyman Demirel 1993- Tansu Çiller (DYP) June 1993-

Table 4. Population by Age-Group, 1980, 1990, and 2000 (in percentages)

Age-Group 1980 1990 2000
0-14 39.2 34.8 31.8
15-64 56.1 61.2 62.6
Over 65 4.7 4.2 5.6
TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source: Based on information from The Dorling Kindersley World ReferenceAtlas, New York, 1994, 546

Table 5. Economically Active Population by Sector, Selected Years, 1970-93(in thousands of workers over age fifteen)

Sector 1970 1980 1990 1993
Agriculture, fishing, and forestry 8,237 8,353 8,723 8,397
Construction 665 895 973 1,141
Manufacturing 1,343 2,057 2,553 2,693
Mining 156 188 202 131
Trade and hotels 886 1,429 2,093 2,338
Transportation and communications 417 612 808 898
Other, including services 1,330 2,168 3,012 3,104
Total civilian employment 13,034 15,702 18,364 18,702
Unemployment 871 1,376 1,590 1,530
Unemployment rate (in percentages) 6.3 8.1 8.0 7.6
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE 13,905 17,078 19,954 20,232

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation andDevelopment, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 9.

Table 6. Summary of Consolidated Budget, 1988-93 (in billions of Turkishlira)

  1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
Revenues            
Tax revenues 14,232 25,550 45,399 78,643 141,602 264,273
Non-tax revenues 3,355 5,819 11,174 18,104 32,622 87,119
Total revenues 17,587 31,369 56,573 96,747 174,224 351,392
Expenditures            
Current expenditures 7,460 16,660 33,452 60,403 114,221 204,829
Investments 3,564 5,818 10,055 17,146 29,239 53,161
Transfers to SEEs 1,025 1,223 1,265 12,191 8,145 25,850
Interest payments 4,998 8,259 13,966 24,073 40,298 116,470
Other transfers 4,420 6,911 9,789 16,450 29,755 89,939
Total expenditures 21,447 38,871 68,527 130,263 221,658 485,249
Budget balance -3,860 -7,502 -11,954 -33,516 -47,434 -133,857
Deferred minus advanced payments -81 -639 -400 90 -12,005 7,754
Cash balance -3,941 -8,141 -12,354 -33,426 -59,439 -126,103
Long-term borrowing (net) 2,609 5,578 7,983 4,200 19,446 51,197
Short-term borrowing (net) 1,064 1,452 2,263 23,509 41,372 75,251
Other (including errors and omissions) 268 1,111 2,108 5,717 -1,379 -345

Table 7. Production of Major Agricultural Commodities, 1987-92 (in thousandsof tons)

Commodity 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Cereals            
Wheat 18,932 20,500 16,200 20,000 20,400 19,318
Barley 6,900 7,500 4,500 7,300 7,800 6,900
Corn 2,600 2,000 2,000 2,100 2,100 2,100
Rye 385 280 191 240 250 225
Oats 325 276 216 270 255 250
Rice 165 158 181 230 200 215
Total cereals 29,307 30,714 23,288 30,140 31,005 29,008
Industrial crops            
Sugar beets 12,717 11,534 10,929 13,986 15,097 14,800
Cotton (lint) 537 657 565 655 539 605
Tobacco 177 212 270 288 243 320
Total industrial crops 13,431 12,403 11,764 14,929 15,879 15,725
Oilseeds            
Sunflower seed 1,100 1,150 1,250 860 800 950
Cottonseed 859 1,051 904 1,702 1,401 1,573
Sesame seed 43 45 37 39 43 34
Total oilseeds 2,002 2,246 2,191 2,601 2,244 2,557
Vegetables, fruits, and nuts            
Potatoes 4,300 4,350 4,080 4,300 4,600 4,500
Grapes 3,300 3,350 3,430 3,500 3,600 3,460
Oranges 700 740 740 739 835 824
Olives 600 1,100 500 1,100 640 750
Lemons 340 360 335 357 429 420
Hazelnuts (in shell) 280 353 456 375 315 520
Raisins 105 129 138 135 130 120
Dried figs 45 50 50 45 45 35
Olive oil 100 90 72 110 96 n.a.
Total vegetables, fruits, and nuts 9,770 10,522 9,801 10,661 10,690 10,629

n.a.--not available.

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, CountryProfile: Turkey, 1994-95, London, 1994, 24.

Table 8. Energy Production, 1988-92 (in thousands of tons unless otherwiseindicated)

  1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Total coal (including lignite) 11,530 12,940 12,550 11,880 12,210
Crude petroleum 2,564 2,876 3,720 4,537 4,584
Main petroleum products 19,265 17,789 18,563 18,409 18,811
Electricity (in thousands of kilowatt hours) 48 52 58 58 67

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, CountryProfile: Turkey, 1994-1995, London, 1994, 28; and Organisation for EconomicCo-operation and Development, Energy Balances of OECD Countries, 1991-1992,Paris, 1994, 170.

Table 9. Exports by Commodity, 1987-92 (in millions of United Statesdollars)

  1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Agricultural products            
Cereals 266 441 315 342 287 419
Hazelnuts 391 359 266 456 366 291
Other fruits and vegetables 409 508 523 612 721 692
Cotton 20 141 160 191 193 46
Tobacco 314 266 480 419 564 309
Other industral crops and forestry products 97 289 53 57 284 268
Live animals and sea products 356 337 330 272 268 178
Total agricultural products 1,853 2,341 2,127 2,349 2,683 2,203
Mineral products 272 377 413 331 286 265
Processed and manufactured products            
Processed agricultural products 954 885 918 940 1,212 1,337
Textiles and clothing 2,707 3,201 3,505 4,060 4,328 5,268
             
             
             
Hides and leather 722 514 604 747 620 568
Chemicals 527 734 774 616 464 491
Petroleum products 232 331 254 287 277 231
Glass and ceramics 205 233 258 329 359 395
Iron and steel 852 1,458 1,349 1,612 1,452 1,558
Metal products and machinery 788 383 219 230 265 398
Electrical equipment and products 293 294 234 438 533 591
Other 785 911 972 1,020 1,119 1,410
Total processed and manufactured products 8,065 8,944 9,087 10,279 10,629 12,247
TOTAL 10,190 11,662 11,627 12,959 13,598 14,715

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation andDevelopment, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 96; andEconomist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Turkey, 1994-95, London,1994, 43.

 

Table 10. Imports by Commodity, 1987-92 (in millions of United Statesdollars)

Commodity 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Agricultural products and livestock 782 499 1,041 1,323 813 1,184
Mineral products            
Oil            
Crude oil 2,711 2,434 2,456 3,817 2,794 2,894
Oil products 245 343 522 805 962 865
Total oil 2,956 2,777 2,980 4,622 3,756 3,759
Other 444 427 448 172 198 161
Total mineral products 3,400 3,204 3,426 4,794 3,954 3,920
Processed and manufactured products            
Processed agricultural products 720 738 843 1,162 989 935
Manufactured products            
Chemicals 1,685 1,781 1,710 2,451 2,463 2,624
Rubber and plastics 488 525 485 807 848 986
Iron and steel 1,537 1,655 2,217 1,932 2,009 2,118
Non ferrous metals 418 412 421 537 452 426
Electrical appliances 940 1,075 1,028 1,580 1,877 1,762
Motor vehicles 540 690 790 1,590 1,540 2,221
Other machinery 974 635 370 585 342 61
Other industrial products 2,799 3,121 3,461 5,541 5,760 6,635
Total manufactured prod- ucts 9,381 9,894 10,482 15,023 15,291 16,833
Total processed and manufactured prod-ucts 10,101 10,632 11,325 16,185 16,280 17,768
TOTAL 14,283 14,335 15,792 22,302 21,047 22,872

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation andDevelopment, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 97; andEconomist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Turkey, 1994-95, London,1994, 44.

 

Table 11. Major Trading Partners, 1988-95

Country 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
EXPORTS            
OECD countries            
EU countries            
Britain 576 616 744 676 796 835
France 499 595 737 689 809 771
Germany 2,178 2,196 3,076 3,413 3,660 3,654
Italy 955 978 1,106 972 943 750
Other 920 1,047 1,241 1,292 1,393 1,283
Total EU 5,128 5,432 6,904 7,042 7,601 7,293
Japan 209 233 239 226 162 158
Switzerland 265 174 293 246 223 216
United States 761 971 968 913 865 986
Other OECD 374 391 417 430 496 420
Total OECD 6,737 7,201 8,821 8,857 9,346 9,072
Central and East European countries 520 923 829 1,053 1,217 1,670
Middle East and North Africa            
Iran 546 561 495 487 455 290
Iraq 986 445 215 122 212 160
Other 1,924 1,798 1,742 2,085 2,096 2,293
Total Middle East and North Africa 3,456 2,804 2,452 2,694 2,763 2,743
Other 949 699 855 989 1,388 1,863
TOTAL EXPORTS 11,662 11,627 12,957 13,593 14,715 15,349
             
IMPORTS            
OECD countries            
EU countries            
Britain 739 728 1,014 1,166 1,187 1,546
France 829 745 1,340 1,227 1,351 1,952
Germany 2,067 2,225 3,523 3,232 3,754 4,533
Italy 1,006 1,071 1,727 1,845 1,919 2,558
Other 1,267 1,307 1,750 1,753 1,838 2,361
Total EU 5,908 6,076 9,354 9,223 10,049 12,950
Japan 555 530 1,120 1,092 1,113 1,621
Switzerland 344 412 537 489 688 651
United States 1,520 2,094 2,282 2,255 2,601 3,351
Other OECD 924 822 958 1,013 972 1,402
Total OECD 9,251 9,934 14,251 14,072 15,423 19,975
Central and East European coutnries 857 1,124 1,947 1,875 2,094 3,253
             
Middle East and North Africa            
Iran 660 233 492 91 365 667
Iraq 1,441 1,650 1,047 0 1 0
Other 740 947 2,120 2,890 2,872 2,573
Total Middle East and North Africa 2,841 2,830 3,659 2,981 3,238 3,240
Other 1,391 1,902 2,445 2,119 2,116 2,961
TOTAL IMPORTS 14,340 15,790 22,302 21,047 22,871 29,429

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-opearation andDevelopment, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 99.

Table 12. Summary of Balance of Payments, Selected Years, 1985-93 (inmillions of United States dollars)

  1985 1987 1989 1991 1993
Exports (f.o.b.) 8,255 10,322 11,780 13,667 15,610
Imports (f.o.b.) -11,230 -13,551 15,999 21,007 29,772
Trade balance -2,975 -3,229 -4,219 -7,340 -14,162
Services 22 33 1,622 2,499 4,014
Private transfers (net) 1,762 2,066 3,135 2,854 3,085
Official transfers (net) 222 324 423 2,245 73
Current account balance -969 -806 961 258 -6,990
Private long-term capital (net) 856 1,388 2,456 1,562 6,839
Official long-term capital (net) -594 453 -1,092 -939 -930
Capital account balance 262 1,841 1,364 623 5,909
Balance of payments -707 1,035 2,325 881 1,081
Change in reserves -361 137 2,471 -1,197 308

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation andDevelopment, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 100.

 

Table 13. Major Army Equipment, 1994

Type and Description Country of Origin In Inventory
Tanks    
Leopard Germany 397
M-48 United States 3,004
M-60 -do- 932
Armored vehicles    
Infantry fighting vehicles Turkey/United States 65
Armored personnel carriers    
M-113 United States 2,815
IAPC United States/Turkey 125
BTR 60 Russia 300
AWC Turkey 345
Self-propelled guns and howitzers    
105mm: M-52A1 and M-108 United States 389
155mm: M-44 -do- 168
175mm: M-107 -do- 36
203mm: M-55 and M-110 -do- 228
Towed artillery    
105mm: M-101A1 and others -do- 640
150mm: Skoda Czechoslovakia 161
155mm: M-114A1 and M-59 United States 613
203mm: M-115 -do- 162
Mortars    
107mm: M-30, some self-propelled -do- 1,265
120mm: various United States/Germany/France 578
81mm: various, including self-propelled -do- 3,175
Multiple rocket launchers    
227mm: MLRS United States/Turkey 12
107mm United States 23
Antitank guided weapons    
Milan France 392
Cobra Germany 186
TOW self-propelled United States 365
Helicopters    
Cobra AH-1W/P -do- 38
S-70A Sikorsky United States 8
AB-204 Agusta Bell Italy 14
AB-205 Agusta Bell -do- 64
AB-212 Agusta Bell -do- 2
UH-1H Iroquois United States 96

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1994-1995,London, 1994, 66-67

Table 14. Major Air Force Equipment, 1994

Type and Description Country of Origin In Inventory
Fighter-bombers and fighter-ground attack    
F-16C/D United States/Turkey 138
F-5A/B United States 195
F-4E -do- 152
F-104G Various NATO 24
Reconnaissance (armed)    
RF-5A United States 20
RF-4E -do- 26
Transports    
C-130E Hercules -do- 13
C-160D Transall Germany 19
CN-235 Spain/Turkey 52
Helicopters    
UH-1H Blackhawk utility United States 21
Surface-to-air missile launchers    
Nike-Hercules -do- 128
Rapier Britain 24

Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1994-1995,London, 1994, 68.

 

Table 15. Major Naval Equipment, 1994

Type and Description Country of Origin In Inventory
Destroyers    
Gearing-class United States 8
Carpenter-class -do- 2
Sumner-class -do- 1
Frigates    
MEKO-200 with Sub Harpoon SSM Germany 4
MEKO-200 Turkey 4 (on order)
Berk-class -do- 2
Koln-class Germany 2
Knox-class with Sub Harpoon SSM United States 8
Submarines    
Guppy-class -do- 7
Type-209/1200 Germany/Turkey 6
Type-209/1400 Turkey 2
Tang-class United States 2
Fast-attack craft    
Dogan-class (Lurssen 57) with Harpoon SSM Germany/Turkey 8
Kartal-class (Jaguar) with Penguin SSM Germany 8
Yildiz-class Turkey 2 (on order)
Patrol craft    
Coastal and inshore United States/Germany/Turkey 29
Minelayers United States/Denmark 3
Minesweepers United States/France/Canada 26
Amphibious    
Landing ships, tank United States/Turkey 7
Landing craft, tank Turkey 35
Landing craft, utility -do- 2
Landing craft, mechanized -do- 22
Naval Aviation    
Agusta-Bell AB-212 ASW shipborne helicopters Italy 14
Grumman ST-2E Tracker ASW search United States 14

Source: Based on information from Jane's Fighting Ships, 1994-95,London, 1994, 704-22.


1.Date of beginning of reign is approximate.

2.The period 1403-13, during which the sons of Bayezid I contested successionto the sultanate, is cited as an interregnum by many sources. Other sources datethe beginning of the reign of Mehmet I from 1403.

3.Süleyman II in some sources.

4.Süleyman III in some sources.

5.Sultanate abolished 1922; Abdülmecid II (brother of Mehmet VI) remained ascaliph 1922-24.

 

 

 

6.President of the Grand National Assembly.

7.CHP--Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party).

8.DP--Demokrat Partisi (Democrat Party).

9.Interim government under Committee of National Unity.

10.AP--Adalet Partisi (Justice Party).

11.Acting prime minister.

12.NRP--National Reliance Party.

13.Evren functioned as head of the National Security Council, or de factochief of state, from September 1980 to November 1982.

14.ANAP--Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party).

15.DYP--Dogru Yol Partisi (True Path Party).

16.Caretaker prime minister.

17.Projected.

18.Figures may not add to totals because of rounding.

19.For value of the Turkish lira--see Glossary.

20.SEEs--State Economic Enterprises.

Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation andDevelopmnent, OECD Economic Surveys: Turkey, 1995, Paris, 1995, 105.

21.C.I.F.--Cost, insurance, and freight.

22.OECD--Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

23.EU--European Union.

24f.o.b.--free on board.

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